Dr. Wahied Khawar Balwan
Every minute of every day, a baby is born. Most babies are easily seen to be a girl or a boy. Imagine how confusing it must be when we don’t know the sex of a newborn? This is rare and it can be very upsetting for parents.
A baby’s genetic sex is partially determined at conception when the child inherits a pair of sex chromosome namely an X chromosome from the mother and either X or Y chromosome from the father. If the baby inherits an X chromosome from both the parents, it is a genetic female (XX). If the baby inherits the Y chromosome from the father, the baby is a genetic male (XY chromosomes). Hormonal influence in-utero also plays role in determination in sex determination and reproductive development. During the present study, individuals with unassigned were categorized into Ambiguous genitalia, Intersex and Hypospadias.
Ambiguous genitalia is a rare birth defect in which a baby’s external genitals aren't clearly male or female. The genitals may not be well formed, or the baby may have characteristics of both sexes. The outer genitalia may not match the internal sex organs. The condition, a disorder of sexual differentiation, affects an estimated 1 in 4,500 infants. Ambiguous genitalia constitute a rare phenotypic presentation of the urogenital system that can signal an underlying life-threatening disorder. Thus, it is imperative to determine the etiology as quickly as possible when ambiguity is noted. The formation of typical male or female external genitalia results from a number of genetic and physiological events starting with sex determination and progressing through differentiation of internal and external reproductive structures after a zygote is formed.
Intersex people are born with sex characteristics (including genitals, gonads and chromosome patterns) that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. Intersex is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of natural bodily variations. In some cases, intersex traits are visible at birth while in others, they are not apparent until puberty. Some chromosomal intersex variations may not be physically apparent at all (United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2015). Intersex is a group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals (the testes and ovaries). Intersex is a complex issue, and its treatment has short and long term consequences.
Hypospadias is a birth defect (congenital condition) in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. The urethra is the tube through which urine drains from your bladder and exits your body. Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital anomalies. It is due to a failure of complete fusion of the urethral folds in the early embryonic stage. Hypospadias in the male has frequently been regarded as a mild form of intersexuality. This concept is based only upon the observation that a male with hypospadias is morphologically more similar to a female than is a male without abnormality of the external genitalia. There has been no demonstration that the presence of feminine cells causes this deviant development. Hypospadias is common and doesn't cause difficulty in caring for your infant. Surgery usually restores the normal appearance of your child's penis. With successful treatment of hypospadias, most males can have normal urination and reproduction. Hypospadias is present at birth (congenital). As the penis develops in a male fetus, certain hormones stimulate the formation of the urethra and foreskin. Hypospadias results when a malfunction occurs in the action of these hormones, causing the urethra to develop abnormally. In most cases, the exact cause of hypospadias is unknown. Sometimes, hypospadias is genetic, but environment also may play a role.
Individuals with unassigned sex can be very upsetting for parents. As a conclusion, our study focused on to find out the chromosomal sex in individuals with unassigned sex, so that can go for further treatment with the help of doctors for correction of sex. Moreover, when individuals with unassigned sex approach the doctor, doctors should not hesitate to inform the parents about their child’s condition and proceed to identify and diagnose the cause first then the gender. Thus, chromosome studies are always helpful to find out the exact sex of an individual.
“Any error in this manuscript is silent testimony of the fact that it was a human effort”.
Dr. Wahied Khawar Balwan
Senior Assistant Professor
Department of Zoology
Govt. PG College Bhaderwah
E-mail: [email protected]
Mob. No.: 9419369557