Dr Ashaq Hussain
Nanotechnology is an idea that most people simply didn't believe
Nanotechnology is a combination of two words, "nano" and "technology" - "nanotechnology" means one-billionth of an object or quantity (10-9). Nanotechnology is a field of science in which 1-100 nanometer components of matter are studied and used, which the human eye is unable to see directly but requires various instruments (microscopes, etc.) to see them. The size of nanoparticles can be estimated to be such that the diameter of a human hair is, on average, 880,000 nanometers and human nails grow about 86,000 nanometers a day.
Nanotechnology has changed our lives dramatically. The most striking impact is apparent in computer technology, which is essential for today’s industry and also for our individual lifestyles. The science of nanotech is cutting-edge but simple enough to be affordable globally and the development prospect is huge. So it’s no surprise that many developing countries have already embarked on commercializing the technology. Nanotechnology is hailed as having the potential to increase the efficiency of energy consumption, help clean the environment, and solve major health problems. Nanotechnology is a broad field in which every sector of the economic field, including physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, electronics, computing, communications, health, medicine, energy, environment, transportation, manufacturing and national security, is on the rise. To put it briefly, it can be said that this technology will change the way we look and understand things, it could lead to an industrial revolution that will change our lives.
What can be done with nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology can be used in various fields of automobile, electronics, science, computer, biomedical, medical, aerospace and engineering to enhance energy efficiency, clean the environment and solve major health problems. This will allow significantly lower costs to increase manufacturing productivity as well as create new devices - nanotechnology researchers claim to make products smaller, cheaper, lighter and more functional. Will also require less energy and less raw materials to manufacture.
1-Carbon Nanotube: (Carbon Nanotube)
Carbon nanoparticles are very important in nanotechnology. Carbon is also found naturally in the form of small tubes that resemble beehives on some nanometer scales and when a a sheet of carbon in the form of a hexa is rolled into a cube tube, a carbon nanotube is formed. The change in the physical properties of a carbon nanotube depends on the folding that depends on the alignment of the atom. With this, we can create a material that will be 100 times stronger and 6 times lighter than steel. At the moment, a typical military man has to carry 10 to 15 kilograms, and after a few years it will be reduced to 10 or 15 grams with the nanotechnology thereby will help to reduce the weight of these weapons. Research is underway to make building materials, cars and airplanes from the same material, which will reduce the weight of the vehicle and also reduce the fuel consumption.
Graphene is an important allotrope of carbon consisting of a single layer of atoms arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, which can maintain its balance in the form of a single sheet of atoms and is extremely strong. It is the world's thinnest material, material that is more solid, 200 times stronger than steel but six times lighter and a better conductor than copper and can maintain balance in the natural environment. As its name indicates, graphene is extracted from graphite, the material used in pencils. Like graphite, graphene is entirely composed of carbon atoms and 1mm of graphite contains some 3 million layers of graphene.
Graphene is likely to be used in the automobile industry. In the event of an accident at a speed of 30 miles per hour, the object will be able to return to its original shape. Being transparent, soft and flexible as well as a good conductor, graphene could replace the electrodes in the indium used in touchscreens. It will not be only better and faster, but also LCD, Touch Screens, OLEDs, Smartphone, Tablet, Television, will be very thin and safe from breaking. Since it is light, graphene could be integrated into composite materials to eliminate the impact of lightning on aircraft fuselages. It is also waterproof and would be perfect to use in hydrogen reservoirs It will also greatly improve 4D printing. With a special coding of zinc oxide nanoparticles, manufacturers are working to create fabrics that can be protected from ultraviolet radiation and from water.
3 - Impact of Nanotechnology on Health and Hygiene:
In recent times, infectious diseases continue to pose a major healthcare issue making it imperative to develop logical solutions for robust and rapid diagnosis and treatment. Traditional techniques suffer from limitations, including laborious specimen processing, bulky instrumentation, and slow result readout. In view of the urgency for sensitive, specific, robust and rapid diagnostics, numerous advancements have been made in the area of nanotechnology to aid this effort. In the near future nanotechnology will lead to the supply of cheap and standard drugs. It is estimated the biggest impact of nanotechnology will be on the medical field where the patient will be given a solution that will contain nano-robots coded to attack cancer cells and viruses and destroy damaged cells. It will be able to recreate in future the nano-robots to slow down the processes of our age, these nano-robots will be useful in surgeries that are very difficult or not possible for doctors.
4 - Food safety:
Applications of nanotechnology have emerged with the increasing need of nanoparticle uses in various fields of food science and food microbiology, including food processing, food packaging, functional food development, food safety, detection of foodborne pathogens, and shelf-life extension of food and/or food products. Nanotechnology provides a range of options to improve food quality and also helps in enhancing food taste. The use of nanoparticles and nanosensors make it possible to monitor crop and livestock diseases as well as increase productivity and can increase fertilizer efficiency. Researchers in both developed and developing countries are developing such crops.
5 - Water treatment with nanoscale filter:
The impact of nanotechnology in the advancement of methods and techniques for water treatment are more promising in the recent years. With the fast depletion of fresh water resources, it is expected that engineered nanomaterials will play an important role in more efficient seawater desalination, water recycling, and water remediation. Filters made on nano scale are capable of better water purification, they will be less expensive to manufacture and will take longer to use, and will be able to complete better cleaning e.g. Arsenic (AsH3O4) poisons the water of many countries and it is nanotechnology which will be able to purify the water by absorbing such toxic substances present in the water.
Much can be written in detail about nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is often described as an emerging technology - one that not only holds promise for society but also is capable of revolutionizing our approaches to common problems. Nanotechnology is not a completely new field; however, it is only recently that discoveries in this field have advanced so far as to warrant examination of their impact upon the world around us. Nanotechnology has direct beneficial applications for medicine and the environment, but like all technologies, it may have unintended effects that can adversely impact the environment, both within the human body and within the natural ecosystem. In short, we can say that nanotechnology has revolutionized almost every aspect of life because now technology is not at the level of centimetres or millimetres, but at the level of nanometers. At this level, the principles of quantum physics will be able to create many devices that were not possible before. We will now see the use of nanotechnology in every field which is the need of the hour. Sectors such as textiles and sports will now take a new form with the use of this technology. In short at this time, the use of nanotechnology is essential to ensure productivity and quality while increasing the demand for our products in the global market.
Dr. Ashaq Hussain is Assistant Professor Chemistry (Selection Grade)
At Govt. Degree College Chatroo Jammu and Kashmir and can be reached at [email protected]